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Bismuth-based: Bismuth alloys will have a composition that is less of a ductile characteristic than tin, as it can become brittle. Manufacturers use bismuth due to its expansion qualities when it melts and then solidifies as it can expand to up to 3.3%. The more bismuth is in an alloy, the more it expands. It is less expensive than other alloys that are featured and the least toxic as it can be used in applications where there is drinking water present. ;